Planet-hunting space telescopes may soon have an aid from the Earth as NASA advances the works on a new-generation instrument designed to search for alien worlds. On Tuesday, Mar. 29, the agency announced the selection of a research team that will build a $10 million cutting-edge tool, named NEID.
NEID is short for NN-EXPLORE Exoplanet Investigations with Doppler Spectroscopy. The instrument is a part of a new partnership between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF), that was established in February 2015, called the NASA-NSF Exoplanet Observational Research program (NN-EXPLORE). According to the program, the spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2019. It will be installed on the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope, operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) and the University of Missouri, and located at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona.
NASA revealed that research team will be led by Dr. Suvrath Mahadevan, an assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU). Scientists from PSU as well as from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Colorado, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Macquarie University in Australia, the Australian Astronomical Observatory and the Physical Research Laboratory in India will be contributing to this effort.
"We are privileged to have been selected to build this new instrument for the exoplanet community. This is a testament to our multi-institutional and interdisciplinary team of talented graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and senior scientists," Mahadevan said.
NEID will search for exoplanets by measuring the “wobbling” of stars, caused by the gravitational tug of a planet in orbit around it. It will be a giant spectrograph that will take stellar light and measure its various components. The tool is perceived as a world-class precision radial velocity instrument, with a minimum velocity precision of better than 0.5 m/s (1 mph) and a goal of 0.1 m/s (0.2 mph). Such extreme precision is needed to measure the mass of an orbiting planet through the slight motion that the planet induces in the star. Lower mass planets induce subtler motions in the star, thus higher velocity precision is needed to characterize them. For example, Jupiter causes a 13 m/s (29 mph) amplitude wobble in the Sun, whereas the Earth induces a much smaller wobble (about 0.1 m/s).
Thanks to this instrument, astronomers will be able to search out and study new planets and planetary systems, as well as follow-up the discoveries of NASA’s Kepler and K2 missions and the future Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). It will also help identify promising planetary candidates for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) – that are currently under development.
“The NEID instrument is a critical part of NASA’s partnership with NSF; this state-of-art precision instrument will enable the community to search for new worlds using the WIYN Telescope. We look forward to many new discoveries that can then be further explored using NASA’s space telescopes,” said Paul Hertz, NASA Astrophysics Division Director in Headquarters, Washington.
Astronomers will look for features in the data that correspond to absorption by chemical elements present in the star’s photosphere; measuring the movement of these features will tell researchers about the magnitude of the star’s wobble, which is related to the mass of the planet revolving around that star.
“The goal of this project is to build an instrument capable of detecting a planet like Earth orbiting a star like the sun,” said team member Cullen Blake, an assistant professor in PSU’s Department of Physics and Astronomy in the School of Arts and Sciences.
Blake will contribute to designing NEID’s high-tech, highly precise digital camera to record the starlight. The data, collected by this camera will include stellar chemical signatures, that will be analyzed to detect the “wobbles” caused by planetary companions.
“These are very challenging measurements. There are some really exciting new technologies that weren’t available even a few years ago that will help us understand what is a shift in data due to the star and what could be artifacts,” Blake added.
The NEID project will be managed on behalf of NASA’s Astrophysics Division by the Exoplanet Exploration Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.