Thursday, April 20, 2017

Paving the Way to the Moon: Estonian CubeSat to Test New Technologies

Artist's rendering of the ESTCube-2 in space. Image credit: ESTCube/Taavi Torim.

Estonia plans to launch a CubeSat into space in early 2019 with the aim to test advanced technologies, including plasma brake for deorbiting satellites and electric sail propulsion. The mission, named ESTCube-2, will serve as a prototype of Estonia’s future moon orbiting spacecraft.

ESTCube-2 is a three-unit CubeSat developed mostly by the students of University of Tartu in Estonia as well as other students worldwide in the ESTCube program. The satellite consists of the following subsystems: electrical power system (EPS), communication subsystem (COM), on-board computer (OBC), attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) and structure (STR).

All the subsystems fit within 0.6 CubeSat units and will be integrated with the satellite’s bus built by the Estonian Student Satellite Foundation (ESTCube Foundation) in cooperation with Tartu Observatory and the University of Tartu.

Such integrated structure will have several important goals once it achieves Earth’s orbit. The spacecraft’s main objectives are to test plasma brake deorbiting capabilities and the electric solar wind sail (E-sail) propulsion. Moreover, the satellite will also take images of Earth, test a high-speed communication subsystem and test a corrosion resistant coating in space.

“The main goal of the mission is the test plasma brake deorbiting technology which is very similar to the electric solar wind sail,” Andris Slavinskis, ESTCube-2 Satellite Project Manager told Astrowatch.net.

Plasma brake deorbiting is based on the electrostatic Coulomb drag effect that results in momentum exchange between a negatively charged body and ion flow by using a long thin electrically charged tether. That is why ESTCube-2 will deploy and charge a 984-feet (300-meter) tether, which will be used to reduce the orbit altitude of the satellite. Such long tether could deorbit a satellite from the altitude of 435 miles (700 kilometers) to 310 miles (500 kilometers) in half a year.

“We expect to deorbit ESTCube-2 much faster than it would happen with the natural aerodrag. It takes more than 20 years to deorbit from a 650-kilometer orbit. We estimate that plasma brake with a 300-meter tether would do the job in less than a year. When tested, the plasma brake would be a strong component in space debris mitigation,” Slavinskis said.

Schematics of plasma brake experiment. Image credit: Iakubivskyi et al., 2017/Tartu Observatory
Schematics of plasma brake experiment. Image credit: Iakubivskyi et al., 2017/Tartu Observatory


The tether should have a mass of about 1.06 oz. (30 grams) according to estimates. Therefore, plasma brake is seen as a lightweight, efficient, cost-effective, and scalable deorbiting system with a potential to address the space debris issue at critical altitudes of 560 miles (900 kilometers) and less.

E-sail is a propulsion technology based on extracting momentum from the solar wind plasma flow and uses a positively charged tether, while in case of plasma brake, it is charged negatively. This first attempt to test this technology was made by ESTCube-2’s predecessor - the ESTCube-1, which was launched into space in May 2013. However, this attempt was unsuccessful as the sail cable unwinding mechanics did not survive the rocket takeoff vibration. Hence, the Estonian scientists place great hopes on the ESTCube-2, expecting that it could successfully test this novel technology essential for future cheap and fast space exploration. Moreover, they see this CubeSat as a prototype of a more complex and difficult mission to the moon.

“The main goal of ESTCube-2 is to test technologies for ESTCube-3 to avoid problems in much less forgiving and more expensive moon orbit. The reason why we want to launch ESTCube-3 to the moon orbit is that E-sail's authentic environment is the solar wind which in the low Earth orbit is blocked by the Earth's magnetosphere. From satellite design point of view, the lack of magnetic field changes the way we can control the satellite's attitude. Instead of electromagnetic coils and magnetometers we are have to use reaction wheel, propulsion and star tracker,” Slavinskis revealed.

Besides testing E-sail and plasma brake propulsion, ESTCube-2 will take images of our planet. It will be equipped in the Earth observation imager (EOI) - a small, lightweight, two-spectral imaging system. Near-infrared (650-680 nm) and infrared (855-875 nm) spectral bands of this instrument could be very helpful for vegetation monitoring purposes.

ESTCube-2 will be also used to conduct a corrosion protection experiment in order to test material corrosion resistance in space. Moreover, the satellite will test a high-speed communication system which uses a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), hence allowing "firmware-defined radio".

Currently, the ESTCube-2 team is now testing prototypes and working towards engineering model which is scheduled to be ready in summer 2017. Then, they would like to have the flight model ready in summer of 2018, what will give the team about half a year to test it and hand it over at the end of 2018.

“We hope to launch the satellite early 2019. We are negotiating the launch now. If everything goes well with ESTCube-2, then ESTCube-3 could be launched early next decade but we don't know yet how difficult it is to get a launch to the moon orbit,” Slavinskis said.

1 comment:

  1. I have thought about the assembly of a truss structure that supports many electrically charged electrode wires to provide thrust and spacecraft orientation.. The deployment of these tether systems seems to be a problem.. So I wonder if the assembly of a larger structure that had many electrodes or tethers mounted to it could not only provide more effective working area to the device, more electrodes to cut the lines of flux to provide thrust.. Also.. just a simpler more robust structure.. It could be assembled with a space walk or perhaps with robotic manipulation.. I think we can get far better systems for out efforts if we incorporate in space construction.. The constraints of limiting spacecraft systems as to what can fit in the rocket fairing and then later deploy in space to me seems to be falsely representing cost savings and adding unnecessary complexity.. Sending components up to be assembled in orbit opens up a great deal of mission architectures with capabilities not even considered before..
    The future is looking up!

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